A wireless sensor network are spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; today such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, and so on. A landslide detection system makes use of a wireless sensor network to detect the slight movements of soil and changes in various parameters that may occur before or during a landslide. Through the data gathered it might be possible to know the occurrence of landslides long before it actually happens.
Monitoring techniques Monitoring, forecasting and warning of landslides are the essential features for saving the lives and assets from devastation. There are three fundamental ways for monitoring the landslide viz, visual, surveying and instrumentation. Each monitoring technique has its own advantages, disadvantages and application range. Ground based visual inspection and sampling of these on regular basis may be one of the effective ways of monitoring the landslides. Surveying includes all type of physical measurements. Surveying equipment such as levels, theodolites, electronic distance measurement (EDM), and total station provide some of the prominent landslide features. However, aerial or terrestrial photogrammetry provides contour maps and cross section of landslides. The compilation of photogrammetric data enables a quantitative analysis of change in slope morphology and determination of the movement vectors. Instrumentation may include installing equipment for periodic reading of the different monitoring sensors such as inclinometer, strain gauge, rain gauge, clinometer, extensometer, pore pressure sensors etc. The monitoring techniques also can be divided into two groups: one is geodetic technique, and the other is non-geodetic technique. Geodetic techniques give global information on the behavior of the deformable landslide while the non-geodetic techniques give localized and locally disturbed information without any check unless compared with some other independent measurements. The present paper focuses on instrumentation monitoring and non-geodetic techniques for detecting the landslide. A laboratory trial has been performed using wireless sensor networking with the integration of different sensors. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) is one of the emerging technology that can be used for real-time locally distributed information monitoring of the landslides. WSN has the capability of large scale deployment, low maintenance, scalability, adaptability for different scenarios and low maintenance requirement which made it one of the best suited technologies for real-time monitoring. A sensor network normally constitutes a wireless specific network, meaning that each sensor supports a multi-hop routing algorithm i.e. several nodes may forward data packets to the base station coordinator. A landslide detection system with the use of a wireless sensor network can detect the slight movements of soil or slope instability due to the several reasons such as dielectric moisture, pore pressure etc. that may occur during a landslide. Conclusion Landslide causes significant changes in the Earth’s natural environment. It is relatively local event; therefore, the monitoring technique might help more significantly. WSN is also an emerging, reliable and inexpensive technology and is capable of presenting the real time monitoring over a long distance and inhospitable terrains. A multi functional IRIS mote interfaced to wireless module has been used to sample the heterogonous data with digital sensors in the present paper. Analyzing the data produced by the system, one can monitor the landslide movement; acceleration and subsequently remedial measure can be taken. It improves the ability of environment monitoring of remote monitoring, and also improves the application value of the whole system and application scope.